A microwave oven is common kitchen equipment in almost every household that helps in cooking food as well as heating them up with the help of radio wave radiation in the microwave spectrum. Microwave spectrum of radio waves or electromagnetic waves is a very high frequency of more than 5 billion hertz or cycles per second. The principle of working of a microwave oven is called Dielectric Heating or induction of polar food molecules rotation and motion thereby producing sufficient heat to cook or heat food inside the cavity. Microwaving food is much more efficient than cooking it over a heat burner or an electric oven because of even heating of every molecule of the food particles in microwaving process this is the working of microwave oven.
It was during World War-II it is believed that microwave principle was invented by Dr.Percy Spencer with the help of RADAR technology. It was first commercially developed and sold in the year 1946 in the name of Radarange.
The conventional way of heating or cooking involves transferring heat from bottom of a metal vessel which in turn transfers heat to the bottom portion of food and this process of transferring heat continues till the all food particles are sufficiently heated or boiled.
In a microwave oven each particle or molecule of food is subject to microwaves or radio waves and heats up by resonance of radio waves frequency due to friction of food particle molecules and heat produced thus. This is the reason why microwaving is fast, quick and efficient with fair and uniform heating throughout the food particles due to even excitation of homogenous food particles.
With a microwave oven most of the cooking processes are a cinch of few minutes with the same results and maybe better than conventional way of cooking. One of the biggest advantages or characteristics of microwave ovens is that they never caramelize or brown foods since their temperatures are not as high as conventional burners or electric ovens. There is an exception to this when the microwave oven is used for heat frying oil or cooking oily items when its temperatures cross that of boiling water. Microwaving doesn't suit commercial cooking because of the process of boiling range in hydrous food items does not allow flavors to impede which is produced by virtue of browning, frying and baking.
Microwave ovens have gained huge popularity owing to its superiority in cooking and heating food much quicker than conventional cooking. Microwaving is not suitable in certain types of cooking where browning is needed such as in commercial cooking. The principle behind microwave is simple and it is due to radio waves that it heats up food particles inside the microwave oven cavity.